login   |    register
Early Aviation
Discuss World War I and the early years of aviation thru 1934.
Hosted by Kevin Brant
Lozenge Camouflage 101
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Friday, November 17, 2006 - 03:11 PM UTC
For the final type of layout we come to "Spanwise." This typically had the factory edges running parallel to the leading edge of the wing surface. This was thought to be the result of in the field or at the depot repairs. This assumption goes back to the time when Albatros D.Va 5390/17 was being recovered in Austrailia post 1918. There was strong evidence that the two toned camouflage was an "in the field repair" as the colours were several shades out of tune with standard German camouflage. When the overpainted fabric on the wings was removed it was found to be 5 colour lozenge applied spanwise that had been overpainted. So along with mismatched serial numbers on the wings it was assumed that during its operational life D. 5390/17 had it skeletal wing structure replaced or repaired, recovered and repainted. Or it may be that the replacement wings were all simply overpainted to keep the camouflage uniform in appearance.



This "Spanwise" layout was probably easier in the field at repair facilities where getting the machine back on the inservice list was paramount. It may depend on time or equipment contraints (sewing machines) but in either case it was done. There is some thought that this was done at the factory on a select few machines, all from production batch Alb. D.Va 5375/17 to 5399/17.

Here you can see my build of D.5390/17 and note the under surface of the top wing shows it to be 5 colour lozenge. Also the upper surfaces of all wings were overpainted in the field.






By the way this machine was involved in one of the most bizzare dogfights of the war. An Eerie tale that sends the more squeemish screaming into the night.

JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Friday, November 17, 2006 - 09:56 PM UTC
Betcha think I am finished eh? Sit back down in those lounge chairs folks and slap on another coating of sunblock we have a bit more to cover. But before I continue...Are there any questions?

Next we will discuss the various types of lozenge day and night versions.
HunterCottage
#116
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Stockholm, Sweden
Joined: December 19, 2001
KitMaker: 1,717 posts
AeroScale: 139 posts
Posted: Saturday, November 18, 2006 - 03:00 AM UTC
This question might be off topic.

1) If say an aircraft came in for repairs and needed to be recovered on the upper wing which had a 5 color lozenge, 45 degree application. Would it always be repaired in the spanwise manner - since it seems to be the easiest.

2) If an aircraft needed recovering and had 5 color lozenge, but only 4 color was on hand would a) the whole aircraft be recovered or b) there be possiblities of 5 color on upper wing and 4 color lower wing - different combinations in other words?

3) On a spanwise application, are the ailerons matched in to the rest of the application or are they whatever?

Great job on the subject!!
Merlin
Staff MemberSenior Editor
AEROSCALE
#017
_VISITCOMMUNITY
United Kingdom
Joined: June 11, 2003
KitMaker: 17,166 posts
AeroScale: 12,620 posts
Posted: Saturday, November 18, 2006 - 03:27 AM UTC
Hi Stephen

Absolutely marvelous! Sorry for my despairing "Haven't had a chance to look..." PM last week. A week already? I still can't keep up, but seeing stuff like this is the best medicine I can take to see me through a heavy period at work! Of course, being off-line just gives me time to think up loads of new WW1 "How-To"s for you... you did want to know that, didn't you!

All the best

Rowan
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Saturday, November 18, 2006 - 06:30 AM UTC

Quoted Text

This question might be off topic.
1) If say an aircraft came in for repairs and needed to be recovered on the upper wing which had a 5 color lozenge, 45 degree application. Would it always be repaired in the spanwise manner - since it seems to be the easiest.



Again it depends on the man-power available to do the work, equipment and the general need for aircraft at the time. During an offsensive we can only guess. In late 1918 men were transferred to the front from aviation units to meet man power requirements. The real key is to have photo references for specific airframes. In some cases at the unit level and at the air park depots whole wings were swapped out. Yes an airframe could be seen with mixed camouflage treatments.


Quoted Text

2) If an aircraft needed recovering and had 5 color lozenge, but only 4 color was on hand would a) the whole aircraft be recovered or b) there be possiblities of 5 color on upper wing and 4 color lower wing - different combinations in other words?



In some cases at the unit level and at the air park depots whole wings were swapped out. Yes an airframe could be seen with mixed camouflage treatments. I reference specifically my build from the Eduard Royal Fokker kit build. Both of my birds had mixed camouflage due to repaired components. See ;Fokker D.VII Royal review

Here is the Jasta 43 machine.


Here is the Jasta 46 machine.

The pilot of this aircraft is unknown but it was photographed in British hands post war. The lower wing crosses should be further out by one half of a rib space. There is evidence that the unit may have had red or black forward fuselages. The top wing is in 5 colour lozenge while the bottom wing is in four colour.



Quoted Text

3) On a spanwise application, are the ailerons matched in to the rest of the application or are they whatever?



Ailerons were always done in spanwise layout no matter what the wing layout.


Quoted Text

Great job on the subject!!



I am very glad that it helps answer your concerns.
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Saturday, November 18, 2006 - 07:07 AM UTC

Quoted Text

Hi Stephen
Absolutely marvelous! Sorry for my despairing "Haven't had a chance to look..." PM last week. A week already? I still can't keep up, but seeing stuff like this is the best medicine I can take to see me through a heavy period at work! Of course, being off-line just gives me time to think up loads of new WW1 "How-To"s for you... you did want to know that, didn't you! All the best Rowan



No worries!
Work, work, work, work, work. . .
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Saturday, November 18, 2006 - 05:07 PM UTC
Anyone remember this?
Here France's top ace Lt. Jean-Luc Georges Charles Tedemere-Formery displays his most recent trophy. The vertical tail unit of a DFW C type in night lozenge colours.

Figure and tail unit are Copper State Models items.
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Saturday, November 18, 2006 - 05:20 PM UTC
Since the article in WW1 Aero, No129, August 1990, the author (Dan San Abbott) has revised his data, and a "new" five color upper day pattern was discovered. This new pattern has values and colors close the the upper 4 color pattern. So what now have in the German printed fabrics is:
1.Five color upper day pattern very dark.
2.Five color upper day pattern dark.
3.Five color lower day pattern.
4.Five color overall night pattern.
5.Four color upper day pattern.
6.Four color lower day pattern.
7.Three color Naval printed fabrics.
On several different aircraft in 1917, the Item 3, five color lower pattern fabric was used as a top fabric with plain unprinted linen used on the under surfaces.

The Item 1 was used by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke as a top fabric on the Pfalz D.IIIa, D.VIII and the D.XII. In some instances plain unprinted fabric was used on the undersurface. (Painted lt blue ?)

Item 2 above, was used on most aircraft in 1918 as a top fabric with item 3 lower printed fabric.
During his study of fabric sample from German aircraft, he found the fabric distorted, so he measured fabric samples. Prior to any measurement being made he squared the sample on a drawing table to put the fabric sampled into the condition as it was when woven and printed. The purpose was to ensure the shape and location of the polygons were correct.

He made 1/12.5 scale patterns and full size patterns of the four and five color patterns. The polygons on the five color pattern were identified A through E,and 1 through 4 on the four color pattern.
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Saturday, November 18, 2006 - 05:30 PM UTC
Item 1. Five color day upper pattern, very dark.
letter color Methuen Code.
A. Dark blue 20F5
B. Dark Purple 16E5
C. Blackish blue 20G6
D. Dull green 30E5
E. Leather Brown 6E6

Item 2. Five color day upper pattern, dark.
A. Oriental blue 22D5
B. Greyish magenta 15D4
C. Greyish blue 23F7
D. Dull green 25D3
E. Dark blonde 5D4

Item 3. Five color day lower pattern.
A. Oriental blue 22D5
B. Greyish magenta 15D4
C. Dull green 25D3
D. Greyish ruby 15D5
E. Ochre 5C6

Item 4. Five color all over night pattern.
A. Greyish blue 22D7
B. Greyish violet 17E5
C. Dark blue 23E8
D. Prussian blue 21F7
E. Blackish blue 21F4

JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Saturday, November 18, 2006 - 05:35 PM UTC
Here is a bit of fun. This is supposed to be Gotha G.V 901/16



It appears that with the order G.V 900 - 979/16 that all were "painted"in a four color irregular night camouflage using four colors:
1. Dark violet 17F3/4 which is virtually black.
2. Dark blue, 20F3 to 21F4 also virtually black.
3. Dark green, 27F3 to 30F4 " " "
4 Black.

Note painted not printed fabric.
Lucky13
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Scotland, United Kingdom
Joined: June 01, 2006
KitMaker: 1,704 posts
AeroScale: 1,117 posts
Posted: Saturday, November 18, 2006 - 06:18 PM UTC
This absolutely fantastic work that your doing Stephen! Before these "evening classes", the Lozenge just looked like another camouflage which didn't make any sense whatsoever to me. But thanks to you all make perfect sense now, I see the angles and all that.....
I have two questions though to you.

1: In the case that you did repairs out at the front units, how was the delivered to you? In rolls or were they delivered as pre-cut units for you to just put in place?
2: Was there ever a winter version tested or planned of the Lozenge?

Looking forward to more matey!

JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Sunday, November 19, 2006 - 01:34 AM UTC

Quoted Text

This absolutely fantastic work that your doing Stephen! Before these "evening classes", the Lozenge just looked like another camouflage which didn't make any sense whatsoever to me. But thanks to you all make perfect sense now, I see the angles and all that.....
I have two questions though to you.

1: In the case that you did repairs out at the front units, how was the fabric delivered to you? In rolls or were they delivered as pre-cut units for you to just put in place?
2: Was there ever a winter version tested or planned of the Lozenge?

Looking forward to more matey!




Greetings Jan;
Thanks for the support. I had hoped to be able to give everyone a good basic understanding.

1.The repair stores had to be delivered in small rolls. Every wing configuration had differing areas. Precut sections would have proved useless.

2. There was not a winter scheme of lozenge.

From the venerable Dan San Abbott, here is a bit more on the specific factories that used what appications. Note the term bias is meant to decribe the factory edge to factory edge unions of fabric bolts layed out at the 45 degree angle.


"...Almost all German aircraft factories used the chordwise method of covering wings. The Halberstadt, DFW and Siemens Schuckert used the bias (angled) covering method with the warp yarns (seams) at 45 degrees to the leading edge.

Some used the spanwise wing covering were used by Alb.D.Va on one production batch which included Alb.D.Va5390/17. Siemens-Schuckert used bias(angled) covering on the upper wing and spanwise on the lower wings on the SSW D.III fighter. (Remember my build of the SSW D.III?)

DFW built DFW C.V were bias (angled) covered on all their orders except Aviatik built, serial numbers DFW C.V (Av) 5825/16 to 5974/16 and all subsequent Aviatik built machines through serial DFW C.V(Av) 8249/18.
It is my understanding that bias (angled) wing covering were used on wings where wing warping was used for (lateral) roll control..."
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Sunday, November 19, 2006 - 02:53 PM UTC
In the texturing lozenge thread Brad Cancian has kindly shared his version of working with the Eagle Strike lozenge. (My personal favorite lozenge.)
Brad Cancian's builds

In the next few days I will continue discussing the chordwise application of the Eduard lozenge and show the various methods that can be used.

Lucky13
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Scotland, United Kingdom
Joined: June 01, 2006
KitMaker: 1,704 posts
AeroScale: 1,117 posts
Posted: Sunday, November 19, 2006 - 03:01 PM UTC
I'm ready young Master Stephen! SmileyCentral.com
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Sunday, November 19, 2006 - 11:53 PM UTC
Then here is a bit of homework. Study the two images and their information. Be ready for a quiz.



JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Monday, November 20, 2006 - 08:05 AM UTC


HunterCottage
#116
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Stockholm, Sweden
Joined: December 19, 2001
KitMaker: 1,717 posts
AeroScale: 139 posts
Posted: Monday, November 20, 2006 - 12:20 PM UTC
The Methuen Code of colors, has it been translated into any model paint line?

Thanks again!
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Monday, November 20, 2006 - 08:18 PM UTC
I would like to add that the the panel orientations were alternated. Especially with the OAW airframes. That is panels were turned 180 degerees from the next that it was joined to. The red arrows show the panel seams. The yellow arrows show the same lozenges on each panel as they oppose each other because the panels are at 180 degrees.

JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Monday, November 20, 2006 - 08:22 PM UTC

Quoted Text

The Methuen Code of colors, has it been translated into any model paint line? Thanks again!



Greetings Hunter Cottage,There are several paint companies that have what they call WWI colours. I prefer to mix mine as I can get closer to the colour I am looking for.
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Tuesday, November 21, 2006 - 02:22 AM UTC
In the first image here note that looking from left to right, the 2nd, 4th, & 6th arrows are on seams that are of a similar pattern as the real wing image (with the red and yellow arrows) in the 1st, 3rd, & 5th seams. The small "diamond shaped" green lozenges are the key to telling you that; in the real wing image it employs 5 colour camouflage.


The undersurface patterns are identical to the upper surface but the colours are more pastel in nature. Again we are just focusing on the Eduard brands for now.
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Tuesday, November 21, 2006 - 02:36 AM UTC
Now to be fair I'll take questions before I offer the quiz question.
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Friday, November 24, 2006 - 08:36 AM UTC
Ok, no questions. So either we are clear on everything up to now or no one wants to speak up. I'll go with the first option.

So far we have discussed the basic application of lozenge camouflage to wing panels and their locations on a basic single seat fighter wing. I have also shown you a typical application of lozenge fabric to a single seat fuselage.

Note there were variations;
Some two seater manufacturers are noted for using the lower surface pastel colour lozenge on the upper surfaces. Then they would use plain clear doped linen or that with a lt. blue overpainting for the undersurfaces. My own personal opinion was the availability of certain camouflage stocks determined what could be used to complete a specific contract order. The moral of this story is always use good reference materials and images. If you care to do it right use good reference materials.

Now that we have discussed the basic applications and potential variations we will contiue on with rib tapes in the next chapter. But first, Here is a bit of fun.

Question: Aside from the basic colour issues of the Eduard 4 colour 1/48 scale lozenge, what is the one problem I spoke of that is apparant only to the trained eye?
HunterCottage
#116
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Stockholm, Sweden
Joined: December 19, 2001
KitMaker: 1,717 posts
AeroScale: 139 posts
Posted: Sunday, November 26, 2006 - 01:45 AM UTC
I would venture it is the direction of the fabric, what we have come to know it as "angle of thrust" or "key lozenge".

Before this thread I didn't even consider there was any or much thought behind the different lozenge patterns...
JackFlash
_VISITCOMMUNITY
Colorado, United States
Joined: January 25, 2004
KitMaker: 11,640 posts
AeroScale: 10,982 posts
Posted: Sunday, November 26, 2006 - 06:40 AM UTC
Nice try Hunter Cottage. But the thrust angle is a normal development of the pattern that the colour assignment lozenges are laid down at.

I was looking for a problem or an error with the Eduard 4 colour lozenges.
BadBoyFLSTC
_VISITCOMMUNITY
California, United States
Joined: November 20, 2005
KitMaker: 96 posts
AeroScale: 53 posts
Posted: Sunday, November 26, 2006 - 09:16 AM UTC
You said there were two colors swapped. Can't remember off hand which ones.

Nils